Car Tyre: A Detailed Look at Manufacturing Process & Parts



Car Tyre

The tyre is a sturdy and malleable rubber casing affixed to the wheel’s rim. Tyres serve as a cushion or pillow to the wheels and provide an appropriate gripping surface for flawless traction. A typical car tyre is actually pneumatic; which means air is pressurised within the and until recently, they come with an inner tube holding the air pressure. The latest design, however, forms a pressure seal with the rim but many of us wonder how a tyre is manufactured and its crucial parts. So let’s answer this;

Tyre Production Process

1) Blend

More or less 30 different variants of rubber, filler and other ingredients form a car tyre rubber. These ingredients or materials are mixed in industrial-size giant blenders creating a black, gooey compound that’s further sent for grinding.

2) Mill

Once the compound cools, it’s cut into rubber strips in form of basic tyre structure. At the milling or grinding stage, other elements are prepared of which some are recoated in another type of rubber.

3) Build

Now is the time to actually make the tyre inside out! The steel belts, treads, ply, beads, textile and other components are then placed in a tyre-building contraption. The end product is a “green tyre” but the process doesn’t finish here.

4) Cure

The “green tyre” is then galvanised with hot mould in a curing machine that compresses all parts of the tyre to give its final, round shape. The familiar tread pattern, as well as sidewall markings, are also included in curing.

5) Inspect

During inspection, trained evaluators using special machinery carefully check each tyre for even the slightest flaw, rectify and then ship the final product for sale.

In addition, some tyres are drawn from the assembly line for deep check to diagnose any internal failures or weaknesses. Quality control engineers cut the tyres carefully to analyse the details thus ensuring each piece meets industry standard.

Tyre parts explained:

1) Ply/Thickness

Car tyre ply refers to the fabric layer or thickness that makes up the skeleton. These are typically made of filament cords, woven together and coated with rubber which gives the wheel its flexibility. Another layer known as the carcass ply is placed directly over the inner facing which strengthens the tyre.

2) Beads

Beads are made of powerful plaited steel coated in rubber. An airtight seal is then created between the tyre and wheel’s rim.

3) Belt

Steel straps are then wrapped around the tyre to double their strength, providing them rigidity. The belts or straps are made of steel wire woven sheets; Kevlar cord is sometimes added for extra strength, durability and resistance against puncture.

4) Sidewall

This area is a composition of extra-thick rubber that runs all the way from the bead to the tread, giving the tyre horizontal stability. And it’s also the area where manufacturer’s detail about the tyre is imprinted.

5) Shoulder

Shoulder of a car tyre is a small slanted edge where tread meets the sidewall. The design and construction play a significant part to help the tyre and rest of the vehicle in taking corner turns.


The above details exemplify critical manufacturing and part details of tyres.